role of sociolinguistics in learning of english language in pakistan

(Contains 10 tables and 1 note.). 2. When we study languages, we often focus on the language itself. On gender basis, 52% males thought they spoke, exonormative model while 66% females thought they followed, external norms in speaking. Sociolinguistics course could raise awareness among teachers, policy-makers and community members on the role of minority languages in schools. Rather, it is varied and inconsistent for both the individual user and within and among groups of speakers who use the same language. Teachers in. They have greater emotional attachment to English, language; their readiness of action is only towards English, language and in the words of Edwards (2006), positive attitude, facilitates second language acquisition. English language is a living stream of world knowledge. Inherently, these people have fears that learning of English might, be a “new face of colonialism” (Krishnaswamy 1998, as cited in, Rana 2005) and that the social, cultural and linguistic gains from, a second language also result in some loss of certain aspects of, first language and culture. Shibli, Nomani (1857-1914) thought that it was imperative to learn. The Fourth function is, (Baker 1992: 101). His own books include Language in Canada (Cambridge University Press, 1998), Multilingualism (Penguin, 1995), Language, Society and identity (Blackwell, 1985) and The Irish language (Garland, 1983). Their social and cultural beliefs and life, their. The first is through observation. Allport, G. W. 1935. It In Lee Su Kim, Thang Siew Ming, Gorlach, M. 1990. Females were more conservative because only 76% accepted, these features, while males were more appreciative of the, The Pakistanis find more creativity in the form of Pakistani, English. This course can help them learn more about language variation and language use. The study does not aim to suggest any changes into the existing system of education in Pakistan. Through this research, we try to bring to light, the attitude of the people of Pakistan towards the imported, varieties (British and American), the Pakistani variety of English, During the era of the Mughal Empire, Persian, Urdu and, Hindi, to name only a few, were the languages of the diverse, society of India. 10 Aug 2010. Fresh high school graduates and those who earn bachelors degree, are employed to teach English language in these schools. borrowings, colonial lag, semantic shift, collocation. Upper class and upper-middle class parents have more, positive attitude towards British and sometimes American variety, of English language, because “standard accent” according to, Edwards (2006) “usually connotes with high status and, competence” and they have their own political and ideological, class think that they use the standard variety of English language. At the same time, a Pakistani variety of English language has evolved. These schools aim at, preparing their students for General Certificate of Secondary, Education (GCSE) exams. In the US, pointing is considered acceptable unless we are pointing at a person – we point at items on menus, at objects in display windows and in directions. Although Urdu is the national language, the influence of English continues to be very strong. Which model of English: native-speaker. McKenzie, R. M. 2004. Pakistani English. Language is even thought to have 'evolved to transcend evolution' (Tucker, 2002) and Marx found language 'as old as consciousness' (Marx & Engels). In, the same vein, the position of English in our educational, ranging from the lack of inclusion of local culture in the, curriculum to inappropriate methodology and scarce teaching, cater to the linguistic aspirations of people. between the cultural characteristics of collectivism vs. individualism and language anxiety as measured by the English Language Use Anxiety Scale; (b) the relationship between participant country of origin and the amount of language anxiety; and (c) variation among participant country of origin and perceptions of the factors which lead to successful language learning. The English varieties that are revered, taught and tested in most. It draws on a range of real texts, data and examples, including articles from The New York Times, The Straits Times, and The Economist, emails, texts, and transcripts of speech. The study data were collected through a survey and participant observation of 19 level D students in Oman. John Edwards was born in England, educated there and in Canada, and received a Ph.D. in psychology from McGill University, Montreal in 1974. English in terms of (non-native) linguistic input, local norms, multiple identities, communicative competencies and. These students get near native, atmosphere within the confines of school and at their homes. TESOL instruction: A search for compatibility. The diction and vocabulary they, in educational institutions. Language, perhaps more than any other single entity, has been a tool of identity assertion from time immemorial. Part I presents different attitudes toward English as a global language and some challenges that learners of English share no matter where they are in the world. Asians had the highest degree of language anxiety. 2003. To present the ways to improve the declining condition of learning English as second language. In fact, linguist Dell Hymes, even goes so far as to argue that the two are not different. majority of population are driven by instrumental reasons. The present study is quasi-experimental research that designed an autonomous learning program to develop autonomy among Pakistani foreign language learners. As, support of the argument, taken from Pakistan’s top-notch chain. By getting to know that English language learning classes offer some unique features as venues which enable ELT classes not only to provide opportunities for the development of language proficiency but also to set the scene for the nourishment of learners' other capabilities, talents, emotions and attitudes, and based on the principles of Applied ELT, English for Life Purposes (ELP) is introduced, Searching for practical ways to improve students’ English language skills is a real concern for all English teachers. students, the community, the country and the wider world. Part II is about the features of English that educated speakers consider the most likely and probable in Academic English. Audio-lingualism – the first modern methodol… These English Medium schools are in practice, Multi-medium schools. The standard they use in, their communication is not a variety used by a “native speaker”, (Baumgardner 1995). Consequently, they manage to qualify the master degree, teachers (Zubair 2006). Sounds like a pretty academic word, right? The result could be the loss of their, own identity creating a clone of English speaking culture and, identity (Rana 2005). It is used as a library language, as a medium of science, technology, and international trade, and as a contact language between nations and parts of nations. The Old. It has its approaches to bilingualism, second language learning, and language maintenance. World Englishes: A Resource Book for Students. Judd, E. L. 1981. Can I say this to a friend? This is the study of the effect that society has on language. Therefore, The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway, taught at the degree level in the University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan was chosen to be a case study novel. Rahman (1990, as cited in Baumgardner 1995), concluded that 60% of the respondents said that educated people, in Pakistan spoke in Pakistani standard, and 40% wrote in. environment and the society in which s/he lives (Alderson 2000: 45, as cited in Raza 2011). 56%, than Kachru, (1976): 22%. The meaningful context created by the true short stories made it much easier for the teacher to conduct and run the class. The same is reflected in ELT classrooms, where English language is taught with different objectives using different methods, techniques and materials. Pakistani variety has its unique, sociolinguistic contours, for example, old words are put to new, uses and Pakistani English is wordy (Talaat 2003). With English learners, teachers of any subject can help students to develop their sociolinguistic competence by being explicit in regards to what is expected. Thus the development of English vocabulary is important and plays a dominant role in language learning process as compare to structure learning. Their English in fact is the, indigenous Pakistani variety. View Assignment; 3.pptx from ENGLISH BSENG-353 at Hazara University, Dodhial, Mansehra. It covers the major historical and sociopolitical developments in World Englishes from the reign of Queen Elizabeth I to the present day. Language and Gender (Sociolinguistics) 1. It is for the, sake of acquisition of knowledge (Rahman 2002: 166-167) that, Muslims of India started to learn English language. A qualitative case study helps explore a problem in its natural settings. Language grew out the human need to communicate and interact. Kirkpatrick, A. Attitude. English in the Commonwealth: Pakistan. ), Das, A. K. 2005. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. The Development of the Survey of Technology Use, Teaching, and Technology-Related Learning Experiences among Pre-Service English Language Teachers in Indonesia DS Ciptaningrum Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Learning 2 (2), 11-26 , 2017 acceptability of specific features of Pakistani variety, i.e. Middle class people send their children to the so-called English, Medium schools. Keep a notebook with your questions and discoveries and aim to incorporate a few of them into the way you speak and interact with your target language. Language is one of the most powerful emblems of social behavior. The analyses of the student diaries revealed that the autonomy development program proved to be successful. It is quite appropriate when you learn and make effort to learn and try to speak english language. English language has a snobbish value in, Pakistan, therefore, anyone who wants to become a part of the, educated community tends to write in the expression usually. Their only aim is to get, difficulty. There is a need, therefore to review the syllabus and curriculum of boards of, education and universities and, if possible, to overhaul them so as, to address the contentious issues on hand. Thus, teachers are obligated to provide their students with interesting and suitable texts to read. Part III describes the flexible and fluid features of English that might be susceptible to change or modification over time. The results show that 37% of Pakistanis think that, English while 32% think they speak Pakistani English. These "sins" seem to be the result of a formally and functionally unjustifiable position which some scholars in TESL, following Prator, have adopted. It is important to inquire about things such as, “Can I say this to a man (as a man or woman)? So, in this one simple case, you see how the relationship works on both ends of the spectrum – language affecting society and society affecting language. Sociolinguistics, however, give you the chance to look at the context within which the language is spoken rather than the mechanics of the language itself. Their children usually, schools. The power of English in Pakistan. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and the rationale for policy change. Culture and language constantly influence one another. During the nineteenth century, the social aspects of language were first studied under the guise of “linguistic anthropology.” In the 1930s, it was a popular field amongst Indian and Japanese linguists, as well as by the Swiss Louis Gauchat in the early 1900s. Lord Macaulay had basically laid the, foundation of linguistic imperialism of the English language in, India – as all education, according to Phillipson (1992), in a, language other than the mother tongue of a child is linguistic, imperialism, even if the motive happens to be to help the student. determined by the attitude of its students towards English. When their children go to school and find that they have to learn, Urdu as well as English (English language being compulsory in, all schools), they become highly de-motivated. When one pushes the other, it gets pushed back in an almost endless tug-of-war type fashion. In order to do this, cultural characteristics, perceptions of the cause of successful learning, and foreign (English) language use anxiety were included as the major variables. Thomas S.C. Farrell. Mistakes of this sort, according to David Broersma, can lead to people not only thinking you are ignorant of their culture but even “ill-mannered, dishonest, insincere, rude, pushy, etc.” The most intimidating part is, the better you are at speaking, the more severely you are judged in total communication. In our review, we did not come across any study that provided a profile of English language teachers in Pakistan. English language was being, considered as a vehicle to modernity and it was no more thought. As Das (2005) rightly points out that due to, the “globalisation of economy...English rather indisputably has, emerged as the single language of international communication, and, of course, of convenience.” On the whole, we might easily, posit that there is a mixed attitude towards English in Pakistan. In addition to over 275 million native speakers there are millions more who speak it as a second or foreign language. stories are by far more interesting and involving than scientific and historical texts. to the extent that now they have their own varieties of it. Urdu being a mixture of Persian, Arabic, Hindi and. Lower class people have their own fears and concerns. In result, it is nearly impossible to study one without learning about the other. play, the Dear Departed, by Stanley Houghton (Mansoor 2002). Be aware of the ways in which they communicate and don’t be afraid to ask questions! There are an estimated 400 million people who speak English as a first language and 7-800 million people who speak English as a second language. The attitude of TESL specialists, among others, toward such varieties of English on the two sides of the Atlantic is evaluated in Prator (1968). Persian and Urdu were the languages of the, court. To put it in the words of Sidhwa (1993, as cited in Mansoor 2002): “…although I speak Gujrati and am, language I choose to write in. There are many factors contributing to this situation one of which is that students lack the motivation to read the original text because the examination system requires them to reproduce in writing - answers to some of the most probable questions. Hence we cannot cut ourselves of this body of word knowledge by giving up the study of English we run the risk of knocking the bottom off our higher education for which we mainly draw upon its resource and hospitality. Abbas, S. 1993. orthography, word formation, and grammar, on gender basis. and recognize it as a legitimate variety (Mansoor 2002). The grammar, the vocabulary, the pronunciation, and so on. An Analysis of the Development of Learner Autonomy among EFL Learners through Language Learning Diaries in the Context of Punjab (Pakistan), An Interactive Approach to the Teaching of Reading in the Context of 1st Year University Students in Pakistan: The Old Man and the Sea, a Case Study, Changing Constructs of Linguistic Imperialism: Religion, Polity and Economics, Language, Power and Pedagogy: Bilingual Children in the Crossfire, World Englishes: a resource book for students, 2nd edition. short essay on importance of english language in pakistan. used, understood and appreciated by the elite. online:

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